May 28, · The Black Hand was the name of a Serbian terrorist group with nationalist aims, who sponsored the attack on Austrian Arch-Duke Franz Ferdinand in that both killed him and provided the spark for World War I. Black Hand, byname of Ujedinjenje Ili Smrt (Serbo-Croation: Union or Death), secret Serbian society of the early 20th century that used terrorist methods to promote the liberation of Serbs outside Serbia from Habsburg or Ottoman rule and was instrumental in planning the assassination of the Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand (), precipitating the outbreak of World War I.
The society formed with the aim of uniting all of the territories with a South Slavic majority not then ruled by either Serbia or Montenegro. It took inspiration primarily from the unification of Italy in —70 but also from the unification of Germany in This became known as the May Coup. On 8 Octoberjust two days after Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovinasome Serbian ministers, officials, and generals held a meeting at the City Hall in Belgrade. They founded a semi-secret society, the Narodna Odbrana "National Defense" which gave Pan-Serbism a focus and an organization.
The purpose of the group was to liberate Serbs under the Austro-Hungarian occupation. They also undertook anti-Austrian propaganda and organized spies and saboteurs to operate within the occupied provinces. Satellite groups were formed in SloveniaBosnia, Herzegovina and Istria.
The Bosnian group became deeply associated with local groups of pan-Serb activists such as Mlada Bosna " Young Bosnia ". The Unification or Death was established in the beginning of May the original constitution of the organization being signed on 9 May.
By —12, Narodna Odbrana had established ties with the Black Hand, and the two became "parallel in action and overlapping in membership". The organization used the magazine Pijemont the Serbian name for Piedmontthe kingdom that led the unification of Italy, under the House of Savoy for the dissemination of their ideas.
Bythere were hundreds what was the black hand in ww1 members, many of whom were Serbian Army officers. The goal of uniting Serb-inhabited territories was implemented by training guerilla fighters and saboteurs. To ensure secrecy, members rarely knew much more than the other members own cell and one superior above them. New members swore the oath:.
I further swear how to do the wet look hair God, by my honour and by my life, that I shall unconditionally carry into effect all its orders and commands. I further swear by my God, by my honour and by my life, that I shall keep within myself all the secrets of this organisation and carry them with me into my grave. May God and my brothers in this organisation be my what was the black hand in ww1 if at any time I should wittingly fail or break this oath.
The Black Hand took over the terrorist actions [ which? Black Hand members held important army and government positions. Crown Prince Alexander was an enthusiastic and financial supporter. The Serbian government was fairly well informed of Black Hand activities. Friendly relations had fairly well cooled by The Black Hand engaged in a bitter power struggle over several issues, such as who would control territories that Serbia had annexed during the Balkan Wars.
By then, disagreeing with the Black Hand was dangerous, as political murder was one of its tools. It was also in that Apis allegedly decided that Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the what is a building surveyor of Austria, should be assassinated, as he was trying to pacify the Serbians, which would prevent a revolution if he was successful.
Towards that end, three young Bosnian Serbs are claimed to have been recruited to kill the Archduke. They were certainly trained in bomb throwing and marksmanship by current and former members of the Serbian military. The decision to kill the Archduke was apparently initiated by Apis and not sanctioned by the full Executive Committee how to make a thong out of bikini underwear Apis was involved at all, a question that remains in dispute .
Those involved probably realised that their plot would result in war between Austria and Serbia and had every reason to expect that Russia would side with Serbia. They likely did not, however, anticipate that the assassination would start a chain of events leading to World War I.
Others in the government and some of the Black Hand Executive Council were not as confident of Russian aid since Russia had recently let them down. He may have made a half-hearted attempt to intercept the young assassins at the border, but they had already crossed.
Other sources say the attempted 'recall' began only after the assassins had reached Sarajevo. The 'recall' appears to make Apis look like a loose cannon and the young assassins as independent zealots.
In fact, the 'recall' took place fully two weeks before the Archduke's visit. The assassins idled around in Sarajevo for a month. Nothing more was done to stop them.
The group encompassed a range of ideological outlooks, from conspiratorially-minded army officers to idealistic youths, sometimes tending towards republicanism, despite the acquisition of nationalistic royal circles in its activities.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Serbian secret military society. This section needs expansion with: events occurring in the long time span between the described regicide and the events of the next subsection.
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Oxford University Press. ISBN Yugoslavia in the Shadow of War. Cambridge University Press. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 21 February Ideology and international relations in the modern world. Psychology Press. Srbija i Crna Gora u balkanskim ratovima — Penguin UK. Posebna izdanja. Parlamentarizam u Srbiji od Greenwood Publishing Group.
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The Black Hand. The Secret Serbian Terrorist Society. by Micheal Shackelford. On October 8, , just two days after Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina, many men, some of them ranking Serbian ministers, officials and generals, held a meeting at City Hall in Belgrade. They founded a semi-secret society -- Narodna Odbrana (National Defense) which gave Pan-Slavism a focus and an organization. Jun 02, · From: Pozzi, Henri, Black Hand Over Europe, (Reprint of the edition), Croatian Information Centre, Zagreb, ; consisting of Pozzi, Henri: War Is Coming Again, (translated by Francis J. Mott), WWI Document Archive > Pre - Documents > Constitution of the Black Hand. Black Hand (Italian: Mano Nera) was a type of Italian extortion racket. Originally developed in the eighteenth century, the Black Hand extortion came to the United States in the later nineteenth century with immigrants. The Black Hand was a method of extortion, and gangsters of Camorra and the Mafia practiced the method.
The Black Hand was the name of a Serbian terrorist group with nationalist aims, who sponsored the attack on Austrian Arch-Duke Franz Ferdinand in that both killed him and provided the spark for World War I. It would form the core of the Black Hand, which was formed on May 9th, under the alternative name Unification or Death Ujedinjenje ili Smrt. The name is a good clue as to their intentions, which was to use violence to achieve a greater Serbia all Serbs under Serb rule and a Serbian state that dominated the region by attacking targets from the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian empires and their followers outside it.
The violence was to be achieved through guerrilla acts by cells of just handfuls of people. But this terrorist group was able to use its connections to the only semi-secretive National Defense society to gather a huge amount of political support in Serbia. Apis was a senior military figure. However, by this was tailing off after one assassination too many. Their guidance was key, arranging training and probably providing weapons, and when the Serb government tried to get Apis to cancel he made little effort, leading to an armed group making the attempt in It took luck, fate, or whatever divine assistance they might want to call on, but Franz Ferdinand was assassinated and World War I followed swiftly.
Austria, aided by German forces, occupied Serbia and tens of thousands of Serbs were killed. Within Serbia itself, the Black Hand had become hugely powerful thanks to the military connection, but also more than an embarrassment to political leaders who wanted their own names kept well apart, and in the Prime Minister ordered it neutralized. The people in charge were arrested, tried, four were executed include the colonel and hundreds went to prison.
Serbian politics did not end with the Great War. Share Flipboard Email. Robert Wilde. History Expert. Robert Wilde is a historian who writes about European history. He is the author of the History in an Afternoon textbook series. Cite this Article Format. Wilde, Robert. The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Biography of Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria.