Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet is officially classified as a tragedy, but in some respects the play deviates from the tragic genre. Unlike other Shakespearean tragedies such as Macbeth, King Lear, and Julius Caesar, Romeo and Juliet is not concerned with a noble character whose actions have widespread consequence. Instead, the story describes the love between two ordinary teenagers. Apr 24, · A drama well known by William Shakespeare is Romeo and Juliet. Shakespeare’s play about the doomed romance of two teenagers from feuding families is the most famous love story written. This play was first performed around , Romeo and Juliet has been adapted by ballets, operas, the musical West Side Story, and a dozen other films.
They're in street clothes — hoodies, sneakers and backpacks. They seem blissfully unaware that not all will survive the next hour or so. Yet it keeps its theatrical roots.
The play opens backstage with the lovers flirting beside a prop cage and the knives are wooden — until they become steel. As the play continues, it opens up with costumes and set designs appearing effortlessly. The retelling is directed by Simon Godwin and reconceived by writer Emily Burns for the screen.
It was shot over 17 days in December at the National's Lyttelton theater. He grew up going to the Royal Shakespeare Festival and did a few Shakespeare scenes in drama school but had never tackled an entire play before. She was more attracted to musicals until taking a four-week Shakespeare course that she how to make loud poppers changed her career.
Dama were sliced, characters were streamlined. One thing romo pair noticed was that not having to project the lines made them somehow more direct and personal. Onscreen, Shakespeare's words are often whispered by the pair. There's even a same-sex attraction between Mercutio and Benvolio, a brave step. Yype has to be sexy. More Entertainment. In-Depth Coverage. The CT Sun's new leader has one stop iss make first: the Olympics. CT startup targets users with zero investment experience.
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Romeo And Juliet Tragedy Analysis
The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet The story Romeo and juliet is a tragedy due to the common elements of death, heartbreak, and drama. Which display peril and loss in the characters which can lead to them making quick and regretful last minute decisions that can hurt themselves and others at the exact same time. Death is a major element in a tragedy. The characters of Romeo and Juliet have been continuously depicted in literature, music, dance, and theatre. The premise of the young hero and heroine whose families are enemies is so appealing that Romeo and Juliet have become, in the modern popular imagination, the . Romeo and Juliet study guide contains a biography of William Shakespeare, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.
Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare early in his career about two young Italian star-crossed lovers whose deaths ultimately reconcile their feuding families.
It was among Shakespeare's most popular plays during his lifetime and, along with Hamlet , is one of his most frequently performed plays. Today, the title characters are regarded as archetypal young lovers. Romeo and Juliet belongs to a tradition of tragic romances stretching back to antiquity. Shakespeare borrowed heavily from both but expanded the plot by developing a number of supporting characters, particularly Mercutio and Paris. Believed to have been written between and , the play was first published in a quarto version in The text of the first quarto version was of poor quality, however, and later editions corrected the text to conform more closely with Shakespeare's original.
Shakespeare's use of his poetic dramatic structure especially effects such as switching between comedy and tragedy to heighten tension, his expansion of minor characters, and his use of sub-plots to embellish the story has been praised as an early sign of his dramatic skill. The play ascribes different poetic forms to different characters, sometimes changing the form as the character develops. Romeo, for example, grows more adept at the sonnet over the course of the play.
Romeo and Juliet has been adapted numerous times for stage, film, musical, and opera venues. During the English Restoration , it was revived and heavily revised by William Davenant. David Garrick 's 18th-century version also modified several scenes, removing material then considered indecent, and Georg Benda 's Romeo und Julie omitted much of the action and used a happy ending. Performances in the 19th century, including Charlotte Cushman 's, restored the original text and focused on greater realism.
John Gielgud 's version kept very close to Shakespeare's text and used Elizabethan costumes and staging to enhance the drama. The play, set in Verona , Italy , begins with a street brawl between Montague and Capulet servants who, like their masters, are sworn enemies. Prince Escalus of Verona intervenes and declares that further breach of the peace will be punishable by death. Later, Count Paris talks to Capulet about marrying his daughter Juliet , but Capulet asks Paris to wait another two years and invites him to attend a planned Capulet ball.
Meanwhile, Benvolio talks with his cousin Romeo , Montague's son, about Romeo's recent depression. Benvolio discovers that it stems from unrequited infatuation for a girl named Rosaline , one of Capulet's nieces. Persuaded by Benvolio and Mercutio , Romeo attends the ball at the Capulet house in hopes of meeting Rosaline.
However, Romeo instead meets and falls in love with Juliet. Juliet's cousin, Tybalt , is enraged at Romeo for sneaking into the ball but is only stopped from killing Romeo by Juliet's father, who does not wish to shed blood in his house. After the ball, in what is now called the "balcony scene", Romeo sneaks into the Capulet orchard and overhears Juliet at her window vowing her love to him in spite of her family's hatred of the Montagues.
Romeo makes himself known to her, and they agree to be married. With the help of Friar Laurence , who hopes to reconcile the two families through their children's union, they are secretly married the next day.
Tybalt, meanwhile, still incensed that Romeo had sneaked into the Capulet ball, challenges him to a duel. Romeo, now considering Tybalt his kinsman, refuses to fight. Mercutio is offended by Tybalt's insolence, as well as Romeo's "vile submission",  and accepts the duel on Romeo's behalf. Mercutio is fatally wounded when Romeo attempts to break up the fight. Grief-stricken and wracked with guilt, Romeo confronts and slays Tybalt. Benvolio argues that Romeo has justly executed Tybalt for the murder of Mercutio.
The Prince, now having lost a kinsman in the warring families' feud, exiles Romeo from Verona, under penalty of death if he ever returns.
Romeo secretly spends the night in Juliet's chamber, where they consummate their marriage. Capulet, misinterpreting Juliet's grief, agrees to marry her to Count Paris and threatens to disown her when she refuses to become Paris's "joyful bride". Juliet visits Friar Laurence for help, and he offers her a potion that will put her into a deathlike coma or catalepsy for "two and forty hours".
On the night before the wedding, she takes the drug and, when discovered apparently dead, she is laid in the family crypt. The messenger, however, does not reach Romeo and, instead, Romeo learns of Juliet's apparent death from his servant, Balthasar.
Heartbroken, Romeo buys poison from an apothecary and goes to the Capulet crypt. He encounters Paris who has come to mourn Juliet privately. Believing Romeo to be a vandal, Paris confronts him and, in the ensuing battle, Romeo kills Paris. Still believing Juliet to be dead, he drinks the poison. Juliet then awakens and, discovering that Romeo is dead, stabs herself with his dagger and joins him in death.
The feuding families and the Prince meet at the tomb to find all three dead. Friar Laurence recounts the story of the two "star-cross'd lovers".
The families are reconciled by their children's deaths and agree to end their violent feud. Romeo and Juliet borrows from a tradition of tragic love stories dating back to antiquity. One of these is Pyramus and Thisbe , from Ovid 's Metamorphoses , which contains parallels to Shakespeare's story: the lovers' parents despise each other, and Pyramus falsely believes his lover Thisbe is dead. One of the earliest references to the names Montague and Capulet is from Dante 's Divine Comedy , who mentions the Montecchi Montagues and the Cappelletti Capulets in canto six of Purgatorio : .
Come and see, you who are negligent, Montagues and Capulets, Monaldi and Filippeschi One lot already grieving, the other in fear. However, the reference is part of a polemic against the moral decay of Florence , Lombardy , and the Italian Peninsula as a whole; Dante , through his characters, chastises German King Albert I for neglecting his responsibilities towards Italy "you who are negligent" , and successive popes for their encroachment from purely spiritual affairs, thus leading to a climate of incessant bickering and warfare between rival political parties in Lombardy.
History records the name of the family Montague as being lent to such a political party in Verona , but that of the Capulets as from a Cremonese family, both of whom play out their conflict in Lombardy as a whole rather than within the confines of Verona. The earliest known version of the Romeo and Juliet tale akin to Shakespeare's play is the story of Mariotto and Gianozza by Masuccio Salernitano , in the 33rd novel of his Il Novellino published in His version of the story includes the secret marriage, the colluding friar, the fray where a prominent citizen is killed, Mariotto's exile, Gianozza's forced marriage, the potion plot, and the crucial message that goes astray.
In this version, Mariotto is caught and beheaded and Gianozza dies of grief. Luigi da Porto — adapted the story as Giulietta e Romeo  and included it in his Historia novellamente ritrovata di due Nobili Amanti , written in and published posthumously in in Venice. The next morning, the Savorgnans led an attack on the city , and many members of the Strumieri were murdered. When years later, half-paralyzed from a battle-wound, he wrote Giulietta e Romeo in Montorso Vicentino from where he could see the "castles" of Verona , he dedicated the novella to bellisima e leggiadra madonna Lucina Savorgnan.
Da Porto gave Romeo and Juliet most of its modern form, including the names of the lovers, the rival families of Montecchi and Capuleti, and the location in Verona.
Da Porto originated the remaining basic elements of the story: the feuding families, Romeo—left by his mistress—meeting Giulietta at a dance at her house, the love scenes including the balcony scene , the periods of despair, Romeo killing Giulietta's cousin Tebaldo , and the families' reconciliation after the lovers' suicides.
In , Matteo Bandello published the second volume of his Novelle , which included his version of Giuletta e Romeo ,  probably written between and Bandello lengthened and weighed down the plot while leaving the storyline basically unchanged though he did introduce Benvolio. Boaistuau adds much moralising and sentiment, and the characters indulge in rhetorical outbursts.
Romeo and Juliet is a dramatisation of Brooke's translation, and Shakespeare follows the poem closely but adds extra detail to both major and minor characters the Nurse and Mercutio in particular. Christopher Marlowe 's Hero and Leander and Dido, Queen of Carthage , both similar stories written in Shakespeare's day, are thought to be less of a direct influence, although they may have helped create an atmosphere in which tragic love stories could thrive.
It is unknown when exactly Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet. Juliet's Nurse refers to an earthquake she says occurred 11 years ago. Other earthquakes—both in England and in Verona—have been proposed in support of the different dates. Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet was published in two quarto editions prior to the publication of the First Folio of These are referred to as Q1 and Q2. The first printed edition, Q1, appeared in early , printed by John Danter. Because its text contains numerous differences from the later editions, it is labelled a so-called ' bad quarto '; the 20th-century editor T.
Spencer described it as "a detestable text, probably a reconstruction of the play from the imperfect memories of one or two of the actors", suggesting that it had been pirated for publication. Alternative theories are that some or all of 'the bad quartos' are early versions by Shakespeare or abbreviations made either for Shakespeare's company or for other companies.
It was printed in by Thomas Creede and published by Cuthbert Burby. Q2 is about lines longer than Q1. Scholars believe that Q2 was based on Shakespeare's pre-performance draft called his foul papers since there are textual oddities such as variable tags for characters and "false starts" for speeches that were presumably struck through by the author but erroneously preserved by the typesetter.
It is a much more complete and reliable text and was reprinted in Q3 , Q4 and Q5. The First Folio text of was based primarily on Q3, with clarifications and corrections possibly coming from a theatrical prompt book or Q1. Pope began a tradition of editing the play to add information such as stage directions missing in Q2 by locating them in Q1.
This tradition continued late into the Romantic period. Fully annotated editions first appeared in the Victorian period and continue to be produced today, printing the text of the play with footnotes describing the sources and culture behind the play. Scholars have found it extremely difficult to assign one specific, overarching theme to the play.
Proposals for a main theme include a discovery by the characters that human beings are neither wholly good nor wholly evil, but instead are more or less alike,  awaking out of a dream and into reality, the danger of hasty action, or the power of tragic fate. None of these have widespread support. However, even if an overall theme cannot be found it is clear that the play is full of several small, thematic elements that intertwine in complex ways.
Several of those most often debated by scholars are discussed below. Juliet Good pilgrim, you do wrong your hand too much, Which mannerly devotion shows in this; For saints have hands that pilgrims' hands do touch, And palm to palm is holy palmers' kiss.
Romeo and Juliet is sometimes considered to have no unifying theme, save that of young love. Since it is such an obvious subject of the play, several scholars have explored the language and historical context behind the romance of the play. On their first meeting, Romeo and Juliet use a form of communication recommended by many etiquette authors in Shakespeare's day: metaphor. By using metaphors of saints and sins, Romeo was able to test Juliet's feelings for him in a non-threatening way.
This method was recommended by Baldassare Castiglione whose works had been translated into English by this time. He pointed out that if a man used a metaphor as an invitation, the woman could pretend she did not understand him, and he could retreat without losing honour.
Juliet, however, participates in the metaphor and expands on it. The religious metaphors of "shrine", "pilgrim", and "saint" were fashionable in the poetry of the time and more likely to be understood as romantic rather than blasphemous, as the concept of sainthood was associated with the Catholicism of an earlier age. In the later balcony scene, Shakespeare has Romeo overhear Juliet's soliloquy, but in Brooke's version of the story, her declaration is done alone.
By bringing Romeo into the scene to eavesdrop, Shakespeare breaks from the normal sequence of courtship. Usually, a woman was required to be modest and shy to make sure that her suitor was sincere, but breaking this rule serves to speed along the plot.