The 6 Classical Languages of India
6 rows · Jun 15, · Kannada is a predominant language in the states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nandu. The Author: John Misachi. 3 rows · Sep 25, · 4 of the 6 Classical languages are Dravidian. Of the six classical languages, five of them.
Languages spoken in India belong to several language familiesthe major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by Article of the Indian constitution stated that the official language of the Union is Hindi in Devanagari script instead of the extant English. Later, a constitutional amendment, The Official Languages Act,allowed for the continuation of English alongside Hindi in the Indian government indefinitely until legislation decides to change it.
The Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution lists 22 languages,  which have been referred to as scheduled languages and given recognition, status and official encouragement.
Classical language status is given to languages which have a rich heritage and independent nature. According to the Census of India ofIndia has major languages and other languages. However, figures from other sources vary, primarily due to differences in definition of the terms "language" and "dialect". The Census recorded 30 languages which were spoken by more than a million what is the classical language of india speakers and which were spoken how to make a hand propeller more than 10, people.
It reigned as an administrative language for several centuries until the era of British colonisation. It is used in higher education what is the history of indian music in some areas of the Indian government.
Hindithe most commonly spoken language in India today, serves as the lingua franca across much of North and Central India. Bengali is the second most spoken and understood language in the country with a significant amount of speakers in Eastern and North- eastern regions. Marathi is the third most spoken and understood language in the country with a significant amount of speakers in South-Western regions. The Southern Indian languages are from the Dravidian family.
The Dravidian languages are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. Persianor Farsiwas brought into India by the Ghaznavids and other Turko-Afghan dynasties as the court language. Culturally Persianized, they, in combination with the later Mughal dynasty of Turco-Mongol origininfluenced the art, history and literature of the region for more than years, resulting in the Persianisation of many Indian tongues, mainly lexically.
Inthe British replaced Persian with English and Hindustani in Perso-Arabic script for administrative purposes and the Hindi movement of the 19th Century replaced Persianised vocabulary with Sanskrit derivations and replaced or supplemented the use of Perso-Arabic script for administrative purposes with Devanagari.
Each of the northern Indian languages had different influences. Bangla on the other hand has retained its Sanskritic roots while heavily expanding its vocabulary with words from Persian, English, French and other foreign languages.
The first official survey of language diversity in the Indian subcontinent was carried out by Sir George Abraham Grierson from to Titled the Linguistic Survey of Indiait reported a total of languages and dialects. Different sources give widely differing figures, primarily based on how the terms "language" and "dialect" are defined and grouped.
Ethnologueproduced by the Christian evangelist organisation SIL Internationallists tongues for India out of 6, worldwideof which are living, while 14 are extinct. The living languages are further subclassified in Ethnologue as follows:  .
The People's Linguistic Survey of India, a privately owned research institution in India, has recorded over 66 different scripts and more than languages in India how to call a phone from computer free its nationwide survey, which the organisation claims to be the biggest linguistic survey in India.
The Census of India records and publishes data with respect to the number of speakers for languages and dialects, but uses its own unique terminology, distinguishing between language and mother tongue.
The mother tongues are grouped within each language. Many of the mother tongues so defined could be considered a language rather than a dialect by linguistic standards. This is especially so for many mother tongues with tens of millions of speakers that are officially grouped under the language Hindi. The census recognised 1, mother tongues spoken by , people, counting all declarations made by any individual at the time when the census was conducted.
The census recognises 1, classified mother tongues. The remaining accounted for a total ofnative speakers what is the classical language of india of a total of million Indians in As per the census ofthere are rationalised mother tongues, identifiable mother tongues and 22 major languages. In these languages, 22 are already part of the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India and other 99 are termed how to make pop cakes recipe "Total of other languages" which is one short as of the other languages recognized in census.
The following list consist of Indian subcontinent languages' total speakers worldwide in the edition of Ethnologuea language reference published by SIL Internationalwhich is based in the United States. Ethnolinguistically, the languages of South Asia, echoing the complex history and geography of the region, form a complex patchwork of language familieslanguage phyla and isolates. The languages of India belong to several language families, the most important of which are:     .
The largest of the language families represented in India, in terms of speakers, is the Indo-Aryan language familya branch of the Indo-Iranian familyitself the easternmost, extant subfamily of the Indo-European language family. This language family predominates, accounting for some million speakers, or over The second largest language family is the Dravidian language familyaccounting for some million speakers, or approximately The Austroasiatic language family austro meaning South is the autochthonous language in Southeast Asia, arrived by migration.
Austroasiatic languages of mainland India are the How to register my dog ckc and Munda languagesincluding Santali. The languages of the Nicobar islands also form part of this language family. With the exceptions of Khasi and Santali, all Austroasiatic languages on Indian territory are endangered. The Tibeto-Burman language family are well represented in India. However, their interrelationships are not discernible, and the family has been described as "a patch of leaves on the forest floor" rather than with the conventional metaphor of a "family tree".
Sino-Tibetan languages spoken in India include how to be a nanny in california scheduled languages Meitei and Bodothe non-scheduled languages of KarbiLepchaand many varieties of several related TibeticWest HimalayishTaniBrahmaputranAngami—PochuriTangkhulZemeKukish language groups, amongst many others.
Ahom languagea Southwestern Tai languagewhat is the classical language of india been once the dominant language of the Ahom Kingdom in modern-day Assambut was later replaced by the Assamese language known as Kamrupi in ancient era which is the pre-form of the Kamrupi dialect of today. Nowadays, small Tai communities and their languages remain in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh together with Sino-Tibetans, e.
The languages of the Andaman Islands form another group: . In addition, Sentinelese is thought likely to be related to the above languages. The only language found in the Indian mainland that is considered a language isolate is Nihali. In addition, a Bantu languageSidiwas spoken until the midth century in Gujarat by the Siddi. Prior to Independence, in British IndiaEnglish was the sole language used for administrative purposes as well as for higher education purposes. Inthe issue of national language was a bitterly contested subject in the proceedings of the Constituent Assembly of Indiaspecifically what should be the language in which the Constitution of India is written and the language spoken during the proceedings of Parliament and thus deserving of the epithet "national".
Members belonging to the northern parts of India insisted that the What does ear99 stand for be drafted in Hindi with the unofficial translation in English. This was not agreed to by the drafting Committee on the grounds that English was much better to craft the nuanced prose on constitutional subjects. The efforts to make Hindi the pre-eminent language were bitterly resisted by the members from those parts of India where Hindi was not spoken natively.
Eventually, a compromise was reached not to include any mention to a national language. Instead, Hindi in Devanagari script was declared to be the official language of the union, but for "fifteen years from the commencement of the Constitution, the English Language shall continue to be used for all the official purposes of the Union for which it was being used immediately before such commencement.
Accordingly, Jawaharlal Nehru ensured the enactment of the Official Languages Act,  which provided that English "may" still be used with Hindi for official purposes, even after This led to widespread agitation, riots, self-immolations and suicides in Tamil Nadu. The split of Congress politicians from the South from their party stance, the resignation of two Union ministers from the South and the increasing threat to the country's unity forced Shastri to concede. As a result, the proposal was dropped,   and the Act itself was amended in to provide that the use of English would not be ended until a resolution to that effect was passed by the legislature of every state that had not adopted Hindi as its official language, and by each house of the Indian Parliament.
The Constitution of India does not give any language the status of national language. Hindi, written in Devanagari script, is the most prominent language spoken in the country. In the censusmillion , people in India reported Hindi to be their native language. In addition, it is one of only two languages used for business in Parliament however the Rajya Sabha now allows all 22 official languages on the Eighth Schedule to be spoken. By virtue of its being a lingua francaHindi has also developed regional dialects such as Bambaiya Hindi in Mumbai.
In addition, by use in popular culture such as songs and films, Hindi also serves as a lingua franca across both North and Central India [ citation needed ]. Hindi is widely taught both as a primary language and language of instruction, and as a second tongue in most states. British colonial legacy has resulted in English being a language for government, business and education.
English, along with Hindi, is one of the two languages permitted in the Constitution of India for business in Parliament. Despite the fact that Hindi has official Government patronage and serves as a lingua franca over large parts of India, there was considerable opposition to the use of Hindi in the southern states of India, and English has emerged as a de how to remember pi numbers lingua franca over much of India.
It is a bitter truth. Until the Twenty-first Amendment of the Constitution of India what is a economic activity mapthe country recognised 14 official regional languages.
The Eighth Schedule and the Seventy-First Amendment provided for the inclusion of SindhiKonkaniMeitei and Nepalithereby increasing the number of official regional languages of India to The Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India, as of 1 Decemberlists 22 languages,  : which are given in the table below together with the regions where they are used.
The individual statesthe borders of most of which are or were drawn on socio-linguistic lines, can legislate their own official languages, depending on their linguistic demographics. The official languages chosen reflect the predominant as well as politically significant languages spoken in that state.
Certain states having a linguistically defined territory may have only the predominant language in that state as its official language, examples being Karnataka and Gujaratwhich have Kannada and Gujarati as their sole official language respectively.
Telanganawith a sizeable Urdu-speaking Muslim population, has two languages, Telugu and Urduas its official languages. Some states buck the trend by using minority languages as official languages. Meghalaya uses English spoken by 0. This phenomenon has turned majority languages into "minority languages" in a functional sense. In addition to states and union territories, India has autonomous administrative what does the political term tea party mean which may be permitted to select their own official language — a case in point being the Bodoland Territorial Council in Assam which has declared the Bodo language as official for the region, in addition to Assamese and English already in use.
In British IndiaEnglish was the sole language used for administrative purposes as well as for higher education purposes. When India became independent inthe Indian legislators had the challenge of choosing a language for official communication as well as for communication between different linguistic regions across India.
The choices available were:. The Indian constitutionindeclared Hindi in Devanagari script to be the official language of the union. As a result, Parliament enacted the Official Languages Act in      which provided for the continued use of English for official purposes along with Hindi, even after There is also a large number of Bengali-speaking people in Maharashtra and Gujarat where they work as artisans in jewellery industries.
Bengali developed from Abahattaa derivative of Apabhramshaitself derived from Magadhi Prakrit. The modern Bengali vocabulary contains the vocabulary base from Magadhi Prakrit and Palialso borrowings from Sanskrit and other major borrowings from PersianArabicAustroasiatic languages and other languages in contact with.
Like most Indian languages, Bengali has a number of dialects. It exhibits diglossiawith the literary and standard form differing greatly from the colloquial speech of the regions that identify with the language.
Bengali has some of the oldest literature of all modern Indo-Aryan languages, dating from about 10th to 12th century ' Chargapada ' buddhist songs. Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language.
Recognized Classical Languages of India
Mar 27, · Six languages in India namely Tamil, Telugu, Sanskrit, Kannada, Malayalam and Odia have been given the status of classical language. The first language to be accorded with that status is Tamil. Tamil was declared classical language back in As per Schedule VIII of the Constitution of India, 22 languages have been recognised as Scheduled languages. Sep 23, · Currently there are six languages that enjoy the 'Classical' status in India: 1. Tamil (declared in ) 2. Jul 22, · Odia (formerly spelled Oriya) is the only modern language officially recognized as a classical language from the Indo-Aryan group. Odia is primarily spoken in the Indian state of Odisha and has over 40 million speakers. It was declared as a classical language of India in Native speakers comprise % of the population in Odisha.
The Concept of Classical Languages of India started in Initially, Tamil became the first language, which got the status in It is not only applicable to the Physiography of India but also for the languages of India.
As per the Constitution of India, 22 languages got the Constitutional status under the 8th schedule. India uses different languages for different purposes like the language of Union, Regional language, language of courts, and some special languages such as Classical languages. India, Sri Lanka, and Singapore recognized Tamil as an official language. There are more than 75 million native speakers of Tamil.
However, about 69 million of them belong to India. Sanskrit is the language of ancient India with a history of around years. Also, it is an old Indo-Aryan language. Sanskrit is the sacred language of Hinduism. And, most of the works of Hindu philosophy including some texts of Jainism and Buddhism use Sanskrit as a language. Also, both of these belong to the Dravidian family of languages. Malayalam is the official language of the state of Kerala and the union territory of Puducherry Mahe and Lakshadweep.
Odia is the official language of the state of Odisha and also a second official language in Jharkhand. After getting the status of the classical language of India, various benefits are given to them.
These are as follows-. If Marathi gets the Classical language status, then it will become the 7th Classical language. Moreover, it has around 73 million native speakers. It is the official language of Maharashtra and the Co-official language of Goa. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Hindi is the official language of the Union of India.
These are, Language Recognition year Number of Speaker as per Census Tamil 68,, Sanskrit 24, Telugu 80,, Kannada 43,, Malayalam 34,, Odia 34,, In , Marathi-speaking people demanded classical status for the Marathi language. Tamil First Classical language of India Tamil became the first classical language in It belongs to the family of the Dravidian language.
Surprisingly, there are only about 24, speakers of Sanskrit. Similarly, Kannada is the official language of the state of Karnataka. These languages are also used in other states. Certainly, the oldest document written in Malayalam is from AD. Odia Odia is the official language of the state of Odisha and also a second official language in Jharkhand. The earliest known documents of this language are from the 10th century AD. The literary tradition is original and not borrowed from another speech community.
The classical language and literature being distinct from modern, there may also be a discontinuity between the classical language and its later forms or its offshoots.
Benefits for Classical Languages After getting the status of the classical language of India, various benefits are given to them. These are as follows- Financial assistance for the opening of the center of excellence for the study of the language. Also, it can give two major awards to the scholar of eminence. Central universities can have certain professional chairs for classical languages for the scholar of eminence. Leave a Comment Cancel Reply Your email address will not be published.
Number of Speaker as per Census