Religion in Canada
Jun 26, · Canada's Largest Religions A plurality of Canadians today identify as Roman Catholic, making up approximately 39% of the population. 29% identify as Protestants, which are further divided into a variety of branches including Adventists, Anabaptists, Anglicans, Baptists, Calvinists, Lutherans, Methodists, and Pentecostals. 24% of Canadians are currently atheist or agnostic, and these do not Estimated Reading Time: 3 mins. Nov 27, · Most people in Canada are Christians, and despite the fact that the number of Christians decreased % from to , they comprised % of the population in and % in People with no religion affiliation were the second largest group. In fact, their number increased % from 4,, in to 7,, in Estimated Reading Time: 50 secs.
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Religion from the Latin, religio"respect for what is sacred" may be defined as the relationship between human beings and their transcendent source of value. In practice it may involve various forms of communication with a higher power, such as prayers, rituals at critical stages in life, meditation or "possession" by spiritual agencies. Religions, though differing greatly, usually share most of the following characteristics: a sense of the holy or the sacred often manifested in the form of gods, or a personal god ; a system of beliefs; a community of believers or participants; ritual which may include standard forms of what are the main religions in canada, sacraments or rites of initiation ; and a moral code.
In Canada the principal religion is Christianity ; as recently as the census, almost 90 per cent of the population claimed adherence.
In the mian, 39 per cent of Canadians identified themselves as Roman Catholic and 27 per cent as Protestant. Whereas inonly 5 per cent of Wuat were unaffiliated with any religion, by that number had risen to 24 per cent.
Before European settlement Aboriginal peoples practised a wide variety of religions see Religion of Aboriginal People. Many Aboriginal persons and groups were converted to Christianity through missionary work that began in New Francebut in recent years there has been a revival of Aboriginal religions. During the 19th century, and boosted particularly by 20th-century immigration, the variety of religions in Canada has grown.
As of8. The missionary hte has included the translation of the Bible into many languages and dialects, including several Aboriginal languages. Missionary efforts also reflected colonial European policies toward many Aboriginal religious rites — such as dances and the potlatch — and undermined self-respect and self-sufficiency whag Indigenous communities. Today, pluralism of religious belief is common in Canada.
The various traditions can be contrasted according to their sense of the sacred based on historic events Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Sikhism and the Baha'i faith or on the natural cycle and rhythms of life Hinduism, Taoism ,to some extent, Buddhism and Aboriginal religious beliefsbut such contrasts can overlook the similarities across these traditions. Reliigions the academic study of religion, Christian usages and definitions of the descriptive vocabulary of religious studies tended to dominate discussions of the subject, as did Christian views of what constitutes religion.
In North America this tendency has been influenced most strongly by Protestant Christianity. The Protestant Reformation of the 16th century marked a reaction against priestly religion by scholars such as Martin Luther see Lutherans and John Calvin see Calvinismwho studied i Bible in its original languages of Hebrew and Greek, rather than in Latin translation.
Following Canadda. Paul, Luther stressed what God does for humanity through Christ, rather than how human beings prove themselves to God, with the result that faith trust in God's actionsrather than ritual human routinesbecame the touchstone of what Protestants regarded as true religion.
The preachers, rather than the priests, became the leaders in Protestantism, basing the Christian message on the prophetic tradition of the Hebrew Bible and summarizing it in set creeds.
Consequently, to most North Americans, religion has come to mean a system of beliefs. Since Christians are theists how to make cherry blossom tea in a personal godtheir central belief has been in God as creator, redeemer and judge of the world. In the West, the "left wing" of the Reformation was predominantly represented by colonies of Mennonites and Hutterites. Jewish worship has been led by rabbis from the Orthodox, Conservative and Reformed traditions.
In recent centuries, partly under the impact of the prophetic emphasis on personal faith and social justice, Christians and Jews influenced by the philosophy of Immanuel Kant have emphasized the moral life as the key to true religion. Consequently, religion typically refers to moral codes, as well as religious practices and creedal affirmations, as equally necessary components of any organized religion. The contrast between the cultural compromises of different churches and "true religion" considered as true faith, moral probity or purified ritual means that, in the case of Christianity and other major religious movements such as Buddhismbelievers must distinguish between the cultural forms associated with a religious tradition and its "critical edge.
Allowing for both aspects, religion may be what are the main religions in canada as the interplay between the past and the future, between traditional faith and the hope for the future of individuals and their communities. For instance, Christianity includes a range of practices, relkgions and expectations wre a life where God's will is fully realized defined by many as heaven ; Buddhism includes the customs of the monks and laity with respect to life in this world samsaraand the expectation of ultimate bliss nirvana.
As religion loses its hold on its sacred reference, it loses some of its reasons for being. Christian views have tended to dominate Western discussions of religion, but in the academic study of religion the impact of the social sciences has led to a more functional approach to research and understanding.
Anthropologists have identified so-called primal traditions, including those of Aboriginal peoples in North America, and scholars of religion have reconsidered the significance of these traditions. For instance, where a culture is shaped without a codified scripture such as the Bible or the Quran and without formalized creeds, the meaning of different rituals is typically carried by myths that are relayed orally from generation to generation. Scholars have tended to impose cosmogonic myths myths of creation as the religiously significant mythology.
However, some myths and their meanings remain concealed from researchers: the Shamans or tribal seers and medicine men and women who perform the rituals have often kept the secrets of the most sacred traditions of the group's ancestors and tribal life. Analysis of such traditions uses the contrast between the religious and the secular, since the what is top loin roast is equally secular "this-worldly" in these traditions.
The "sacred" is described as whatever is of foundational value in a given society cabada is a point of reference for creating order from chaos. Through myth and ritual the symbolic system of values is often tied to specific events and places and within any given group, sacred mountains, trees, rivers, plants and symbols can be found. The functional approach to religion can be used also to analyze religious traditions that rely on written religion. For instance, the importance of Mount Zion or Jerusalem in Judaism, Rome in Catholicismand Mecca in Islam indicates the importance of sacred places and times in Judaeo-Christian culture, as does the close association of Christmas and Easter with winter and spring festivals.
One consequence of the use of social science methodology in the study of religion today is that a profession of faith is less likely to be taken at face value than it was when its leaders controlled the study of religion. For instance, the hierarchical structure of the Roman Catholic and major Protestant churches can be viewed from outside those faiths as a set of myths and rituals that serve to reinforce male supremacy; within those faiths, this hierarchy is regarded as a response to divine revelation.
At the same time, a functional approach looks beyond the confines of formally organized religious groups for a broader view of religion.
In modern Canada, research may look to rituals associated with Hockey Night in Canada and the Grey Cup, as well as the Hebrew Bible, when the discussion turns to our cultural and foundational values. The terms quasi-religious creeds, codes and cults have been used to describe non-mainstream religions; new religions exist as contemporary whatt that develop articulated traditions that often have a social identity of non-conformity that is critical of the compromises of present culture.
The assumption that religion must include a belief in a god or some form of supernaturalism prevents the inclusion of non-denominational movements under the heading "religion. Many who interpret the spirituality within these religious movements are syncretists i. As various Asian traditions have been introduced to North America through immigrationone indirect consequence has been the development of new religious movements.
Some canasa these are actually ancient but are newly transplanted and are attractive to Westerners disaffected with the secularism of Judaism and Christianity e. Other groups represent a fusion of Christian reliigions Asian beliefs e. Still others e. So far, these movements are known to us mostly through the functional analyses of social scientists or the claims of converts.
While participation in traditional, organized religious practice may be on the decline in22 per cent of native born Canadians said they attended religious services at least once a month, down from 31 per cent infascination with how to create an untraceable email account occult and esoteric rituals seems to be on the rise in North America.
Christians in North America, especially Pentecostalshave inspired some religious groups in once predominantly Catholic regions to convert, or adopt new religious beliefs. Such developments tye the claim that some form of religious whar is typical of all human societies, even when formal religion is repudiated. It is useful to distinguish the characteristics of magic, science and religion. Magic how to paint a corner with two different colors formulas supposed to effect changes willed by manipulative individuals.
Science uses formulas or laws to explain general physical processes. Religion reflects ancestral wisdom and a spirituality that brings one to terms with one's personal destiny. With the increasing complexity of, and emphasis and specialization in the industrial world, these distinctions have become more significant. As it is, many critics have come to accept that science and religion need not conflict and that magical practices can be found in all cultural modes, including religion.
Religion has been studied as a reflection, or as an awareness, of weaknesses in human behaviour. Much religious imagery projects human fears concerning death and social decay onto symbols of ultimate power. Besides psychology, scientifically oriented scholars look to evolutionary biology for explanations of religious phenomena. In the name of religion, wars have been started, minorities persecuted and social inequalities such as inn perpetuated.
At the same time, how to clean cement from car paint as a response to the deepest spiritual values in the universe has been the motive for major reform movements in history. Spiritual and moral leaders such as Gotama Buddha, Jesus, Confucius, Socrates, Muhammad and Mahatma Cxnada, Martin Luther King Jr and Malcolm X have directly or indirectly inspired the abolition of slavery and the caste system, and the alleviation of ignorance and disease.
Ars the theory of psychologist Gordon Allport, one way to account for the paradox is to contrast extrinsic and intrinsic motivations in religion. Extrinsic motivation involves the use of religious institutions for other purposes, social or economic. Discrimination against women or minorities among some conservative Muslim, Jewish and Christian communities might be studied in this connection.
Intrinsic motivation involves living by such commands as to love strangers and to seek justice for the less fortunate. An integral part of early university pedagogy in the history of many Canadian universities and colleges, religion has continued to make significant academic contributions, especially in seminaries. Seminaries were established to teach ministers and church workers the particular doctrines of their denomination.
Christianity relgions seen as the one true religion, and the denominational formulation of Christian doctrine was regarded as authoritative. Seminaries and their residences were frequently attached to universities, and their degrees were often given the status of university degrees. Despite criticism of anti-intellectualism and suspicion that courses could be used for proselytism encouraging conversion general religion courses in biblical literature or church history were offered by seminary staff to the arts and science faculties.
In the s a distinction was made between confessional and academic studies of religion. This provided the philosophical prerequisite for new departments of religious studies established at universities including McMaster UniversitySir George Williams University now Concordia University and the University of British Columbia.
In these and similar institutions, religious studies are approached as an academic discipline and are located in faculties without denominational ties. The academically oriented CSSR was the first society connected with religion to join the learned societies and to adopt bilingualism. Today the CCSR publishes journals, books, and supports the academic study of religion. Most universities and many colleges offer programs for religious studies including major world how to keep a shaved head smooth longer and movements, and sacred languages such as Hebrew and Sanskrit.
Wilfred Cantwell Smith stood out in the academic study of religion in What are the main religions in canada. A Presbyterian minister and an Islamic specialist, in he organized the McGill University Institute of Islamic Studies to foster academic interreligious dialogue. Returning to Canada inhe developed a religious studies department at Dalhousie University.
Smith emphasized the cumulative history and the personal faith experience of each religion. Traditional Christian theology's assumption that it has a monopoly on divine grace and salvation was, in Smith's view, morally wrong and must give way to thinking that allows for God to be active in other traditions. In French Canada, the academic study of religion was long identified with the study of theology as practised in seminaries for the education of clergy.
However, various phenomena and events of the Quiet Revolution era —66 helped break that monopoly and speed the introduction of a new tradition in religious study. This new approach to religion had been known in Europe for a century, mainly under the German name Religionswissenschaft. See also Bible Schools ; Sunday Schools. Remus, W. James and D. Franklin, Religious Studies in Ontario ; L.
Rousseau and M. Depland, les sciences religieuses au Quebec depuis ; R. Religion and Diversity Project An information source about wide-ranging studies into religious diversity in Canadian society.
Pluralism, Religion and Public Policy How long to recover from torn meniscus multi-faceted program that seeks to understand how religion influences the expression of fundamental notions thr human dignity, equality, and rights within mqin spheres of contemporary social discourse and behaviour.
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Beginning in the late s, Canada was explored and colonized by both the French and the British. Christianity was the most prevalent religion, with French colonists primarily being Catholic Christians, while British colonists were mainly Protestant Christians. That being said, Canada's vibrant and diverse immigrant population has introduced a number of different religions to the country. Of Canada's minority religions, the most prevalent is Islam. Three percent of the population identify as Muslim, and every metropolitan Canadian city has a thriving Muslim community, comprised of immigrants from almost every Muslim country in the world.
Two percent of Canadians practice Hinduism. There have been three major influxes of Hindu practitioners over the years. The first group of Indian immigrants began arriving in British Columbia over one hundred years ago, and immigration continues today. The second major Hindu group emigrated from Sri Lanka between the s and the s, settling mainly in the greater Toronto area.
The third group is comprised of Canadian converts to various branches of Hinduism, largely through the efforts of such groups as the Hare Krishna movement over the past fifty years. Sikhs, identifying as both a religious and an ethnic group, comprise Canada's largest South Asian population.
More than 5, Sikhs emigrated to Canada between and , and despite racial discrimination and prohibitive immigration policies in the first half of the 20th Century, the population has been steadily growing. Sikh communities first began to thrive in British Columbia, and now they are present in metropolitan areas throughout the country. Buddhism was introduced to Canada by Chinese and Japanese settlers during the 19th Century.
Tenzin Gyatso, the exiled Tibetan Buddhist leader and Nobel laureate, was made an honorary Canadian citizen in Jewish Canadians are members of the fourth largest Jewish community in the world. Most are descended from the Ashkenazi ethnic group, but other notable groups include Sephardic Jews , Mizrahi Jews, and converts to the Jewish faith.
The first Jewish immigrants arrived in the 18th Century. Emigration increased from the s to the end of World War II, as Jews sought to escape pogroms, antisemitism and the Holocaust in Europe. Most of Canada's Jewish population lives in Ontario and Quebec.
Caroline Oberheu June 26 in Society. The Inuit People.